A healthy foot is made up of a longitudinal and transverse arch running alongside which protects the sole and provides „springs” while walking.
Types of archs:
1. Longitudinal arch
a) Its role:
It protects the soft parts of the middle of the sole (blood vessels, nerves, muscles) from being compressed. These blood vessels, nerves, muscles run under the sole, if they subside walking will cause pain.
Development of fallen tranversal arch (flat feet)
Arches develop during walking by the time the child is about 4-5 years of age (the child has „collapsed arches”till then). A healthy body distributes weight by supporting our body on three points. These three supporting points are:
- calcaneal tubercle (the posterior pillar of calcaneum),
- head of the I. metatarsal bone (one of the anterior pillars),
- head of the V. metatarsal bone (the other anterior pillar).
Development of bunion
Caused by: collapse and destruction of the transversal arch.
Factors that may cause bunion:
- tight shoes with too high heels,
- weakness of ligaments that are involved,
- standing occupation (waiters, surgeons, nurses, those who work in diners, etc.),