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Nail course – Fallen arch

Development of fallen arch

Between the posterior pillar of the heel and the anterior pillars there is the so-called longitudinal arch. The foot barely touches the ground, the bones are lifted up. The arch has a higher internal and a flatter lateral curve. The highest point of the arch is at the symphysis of about the first metatarsal bone with the tarsal bone. Due to the longitudinal arch, the bony curve is supported so tightly by the tarsal and metatarsal that the healthy foot does not deform significantly under the weight of the body.
The structure of the longitudinal arch is flexible, it reduces shaking that occurs while walking or jumping. The longitudinal arch allows the veins and nerves of the foot to pass into the area of the sole then to run up to the heads of the metatarsal bones, while protecting them from the pressure that comes from under the inner side of the ankle. In addition, the muscles of the sole are also protected from direct compression.

The active work of leg and foot muscles has a very important role in maintaining the arches of  the foot (those who are strong and have built muscles are less disposed to suffer from fallen arch or flat feet). Fallen arch results from the collapse of the longitudinal arch.

fallen_archFactors that may cause fallen arch:

  • Causes related to age:
    – Congenital weakness of the connective tissue that cause the extension of ligaments,
    – Constitutional weakness of the ligaments being involved,
    – Forced walking (learn to walk period),
    – Period of veneral maturing (puberty), (sudden growth, hormonal effects),
    – Aging process,
  • Causes related to occupation:
    – Standing occupation (waiters, surgeons, nurses, those who work in diners, etc).
  • Causes related to body weight:
    – Too much weight,
    – Pregnancy
  • Causes related to other factors:
    – Spine abrasion,
    – Scoliosis,
    – Sedentary lifestyle.

Process of fallen arch develpoment:

The strongest ligament of the subtalar joint stretches, due to the collapse of the head of the talus the inner side of the ankle collapses (in more serious cases the head of the talus touches the ground). The expression of flat feet is wrong for this deformity.

Symptoms of fallen arch:

  • when wetting the feet and standing on smooth ground the inner deep curve of the footprint disappears,
  • the joints between the ankle and the tarsal bones become painful and overstrained,
  • the plantar aponeurosis or its cohesion to the calcaneum will be strained which can result in calcaneal tuberosity or heel pain,
  • increased perspiration of the foot.
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