Nailart courses & training

Nail course – Flat feet

Development of fallen tranversal arch (flat feet)

Arches develop during walking by the time the child is about 4-5 years of age (the child has „collapsed arches”till then). A healthy body distributes weight by supporting our body on three points. These three supporting points are:


  • calcaneal tubercle (the posterior pillar of calcaneum),
  • head of the I. metatarsal bone (one of the anterior pillars),
  • head of the V. metatarsal bone (the other anterior pillar).

The transversal arch is composed of:

  • anterior pillars (heads of the II.-IV.metatarsal bones are placed higher, even
    under weight, than those of the heads of the I. and V. metatarsal bones),
  • lines of the cuneiform bones and the cuboid bone.

The highest point of transversal arch is: the central cuneiform bone. Due to the transversal arch, the soft parts of the middle of the sole in the longitudinal arch, can reach the heads of metatarsal bones within an almost separated channel. Flat feet themselves are the collapse of the transversal arch.

Factors that may cause flat feet:

  • Causes related to age:
    – Congenital weakness of the connective tissue that causes the extension of ligaments,
    – Constitutional weakness of the ligaments being involved,
    – Forced walking (learn to walk period),
    – Period of veneral maturing (puberty), (sudden growth, hormonal effects),
    – Aging process.
  • Causes related to occupation:
    – Standing occupation (waiters, surgeons, nurses, those who work in diners, etc).
  • Causes related to body weight:
    – Too much weight,
    – Pregnancy
  • Causes related to other factors:
    – Spine abrasion,
    – Scoliosis,
    – Sedentary lifestyle.

Process of flat feet development:
Heads of the I. and the V. metatarsal bones turn outward while the II. and  the III. metatarsal bones collapse and touch the ground.

Symptoms of flat feet:

  • ache (the so-called metatarsalgia or pain affecting the metatarsal region of the foot)
  • callus on the sole skin under the head of  the central metatarsal bone becomes too large due
    to the enhanced keratosis,
  • increased perspiration of feet

Symptoms of inflamed and stiff flat feet:

huge ache that may cause inability to walk,

  • foot is swollen and warm,
  • ache increases while moving and arises even when staying in bed,
  • the motion of joints is heavily restricted,
  • some muscles are spasmodically strained in the leg,
  • leg aches to the touch.